Coal tar - Wikipedia

Coal tar is a thick dark liquid which is a by-product of the production of coke and coal gas from coal. It has both medical and industrial uses. It may be applied to the affected area to treat psoriasis and seborrheic dermatitis (dandruff). It may be used in combination with ultraviolet light therapy. Industrially it is a railway tie preservative and used in the surfacing of roads.

Viscosity of Crude Oil – viscosity table and viscosity ...

10 · Crude oil's viscosity can vary from a low-viscosity liquid to up to tar-like, nearly solid form. …

Tar sands oil upgrading technology

Tar sands oil upgrading technology. ... The volume of non-OPEC heavy crude supplied to the market increased by 23% between 2000 and 2004, ... The term "unconventional crudes" is typically defined by an API of <10° and also some reference to viscosity, where extra-heavy oil has a viscosity …

Oil Sands Geology and the Properties of Bitumen | Oil ...

Asphaltenes have an extremely complex molecular structure, imparting a high viscosity to the oil. Asphaltenes make bitumen sticky and "heavy", carrying with it nickel, sulphur and vanadium. This reduces the quality of the crude and makes bitumen much harder to refine. Athabasca bitumen contains about 14 to 18% asphaltenes.

Standard test methods (ASTM and others) for crude oil ...

Standard test methods (ASTM and others) for crude oil properties An overview of common test methods and typical ranges of variation of petroleum quality parameters. What, why and how do the different test? ... For determination of mercaptans in whole crude, the methods may need modification due to high viscosity of the crude.

Prediction of Heavy-Oil Viscosities With a Simple ...

One of the major issues is the high viscosity of the heavy crude oils, which makes production and processing difficult (Monnery et al. 1995; Mehrotra et al. 1996). Heavy crude oil and tar-sand oil are petroleum or petroleum-like liquids or semisolids occurring naturally in porous media. These oils are characterized by viscosity

Pyrolysis oil - Wikipedia

Pyrolysis oil, sometimes also known as biocrude or bio-oil, is a synthetic fuel under investigation as substitute for petroleum.It is obtained by heating dried biomass without oxygen in a reactor at a temperature of about 500 °C with subsequent cooling. Pyrolytic oil (or bio-oil) is a kind of tar and normally contains levels of oxygen too high to be considered a hydrocarbon.

Pine Tar - Refined - Anatolian Pine TarAnatolian Pine Tar

The Refined Pine Tar is fully soluble in gum turpentine as well as other organic solvents and has a viscosity of 1500-2500 mPas (at 23 0 C). Please contact for specific viscosity adjustments. Please contact for specific viscosity adjustments.

Viscosity of Crude Oil – viscosity table and viscosity ...

Crude oil's viscosity can vary from a low-viscosity liquid to up to tar-like, nearly solid form. Classification according to the API degree: Light crude oil: API gravity higher than 31.1 °API (less than 870 kg/m³) Medium crude oil: API gravity from 31.1 °API to 22.3 °API (870 to 920 kg/m³)

Natural Bitumen (Tar Sands) and Heavy Oil

COAL, OIL SHALE, NATURAL BITUMEN, HEAVY OIL AND PEAT – Vol. II - Natural Bitumen (Tar Sands) and Heavy Oil - James G. Speight ©Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS) Carbon residue (% by weight) 14 11 10 5 Heating value (btu/lb.) 17,500 18,000 18,200 19,500 Table 1. The properties of conventional Crude Oil, Heavy Oil, and Bitumen

Heavy fuel oil : Properties and Problems effect on normal ...

Heavy Fuel Oil HFO, also known as "residual fuel oil", is based on the high viscosity, tar-like mass, which remains after the distillation and subsequent cracking of crude oil in order to produce lighter hydrocarbon products, such as petrol, distillate diesel fuels and heating oil or feedstocks for lubricants.. Problem with heavy fuel:

Viscosity of Crude Oil – viscosity table and viscosity ...

10 · Crude oil's viscosity can vary from a low-viscosity liquid to up to tar-like, nearly solid form. Classification according to the API degree: Light crude oil: API gravity higher than 31.1 °API (less than 870 kg/m³) Medium crude oil: API gravity from 31.1 °API to 22.3 °API (870 to 920 kg/m³)

Products from the Oil Sands: Dilbit, Synbit and Synthetic ...

In order to meet pipeline specifications, diluted bitumen sold to market (commonly referred to as Dilbit) must contain less than 0.5% water + solids and have a maximum viscosity of 350 cSt (or a maximum density of 940 kg/m³). These specifications ensure the crude will flow at low temperatures, and minimizes the risks of corrosion and erosion.

Kinematic Viscosity Table Chart of Liquids - Engineers Edge

Kinematic Viscosity The ratio of the absolute viscosity of a liquid to its density frequently occurs in the study of viscosity and hydraulics and the term "kinematic viscosity" with the symbol V has been assigned to it where p is the density. In the metric system, the unit of kinematic viscosity is the square centimeter per second or the stoke ...

Crude vs Oil Sands - Tip of the Mitt Watershed Council

Oil Sands Crude The term oil sands refers to a particular type of nonconventional oil deposit that is found throughout the world. Oil sands, sometimes referred to as tar sands, is a mixture of sand, clay, other minerals, water, and bitumen. The bitumen is a form of crude …

Fluid viscosity and density: A pump user's guide | Grundfos

Kinematic viscosity is denoted in centistokes (cSt) and is measured in mm2/s. For instance, water has a low viscosity of 1 cSt at 20°C, while motor oil has a high viscosity of more than 500 cSt at the same temperature. "Viscosity is essentially resistance to flow and this …

Comparing Venezuelan and Canadian Heavy Oil and Tar …

Oil and Tar Sands M.B. Dusseault ... <20,000 cP viscosity (usually >11°API in typical Canadian reservoirs at temperatures of 16-35°C). Lenders would be justifiably loth to advance financing ... synthetic crude oil from a feedstock that probably averages 14-15°API.

Managing Viscosity of Crude Oil - Merus Oil and Gas

In case of the crude oil the ingredients of the crude determine its viscosity. Especially tar or asphaltene, increase the thickness of crude. The higher the viscosity, the more difficult it is to transport through a pipe. Pumping highly viscous liquids can be very energy-intensive and wearing for machines and pipes.

USGS Fact Sheet 70-03: Heavy Oil and Natural Bitumen ...

Definitions Petroleum Types: Light oil, also called conventional oil, has an API gravity of at least 22° and a viscosity less than 100 centipoise (cP). Heavy oil is an asphaltic, dense (low API gravity), and viscous oil that is chemically characterized by its content of asphaltenes (very large molecules incorporating most of the sulfur and perhaps 90 percent of the metals in the oil).

Tar - Wikipedia

Tar is a dark brown or black viscous liquid of hydrocarbons and free carbon, obtained from a wide variety of organic materials through destructive distillation.Tar can be produced from coal, wood, petroleum, or peat.. Mineral products resembling tar can be produced from fossil hydrocarbons, such as petroleum. Coal tar is produced from coal as a byproduct of coke production.

Heavy crude oil - Wikipedia

Related substances. Heavy crude oil is closely related to natural bitumen from oil sands. Petroleum geologists categorize bitumen from oil sands as 'extra-heavy oil' due to its density of less than 10° °API. Bitumen is the heaviest, thickest form of petroleum. According to the U.S. Geological Survey, bitumen is further distinguished as extra-heavy oil with a higher viscosity (i.e ...

Tar sands - AAPG Wiki

Tar sands (also called bituminous sands and oil sands) have, in general, been defined as reservoirs containing oil too viscous to flow into a well in sufficient quantities for economic production or, in other words, oil essentially immobile in the reservoir. Several more specific definitions have been proposed, but none has been generally accepted.

Introduction to Enhanced Recovery Methods for Heavy Oil ...

Upgrading heavy crude oil and tar sand bitumen is of major economic importance (Hedrick et al., 2006). Heavy crude oil and bitumen exist in large quantities in the western hemisphere, but are difficult to produce and transport because of their high viscosity.

Tar vs. Asphalt - What's the difference? | Ask Difference

Common colloquial usage often refers to various forms of asphalt as "tar", as in the name of the La Brea Tar Pits. Naturally occurring asphalt is sometimes specified by the term "crude bitumen". Its viscosity is similar to that of cold molasses while the material obtained from the fractional distillation of crude oil boiling at 525 °C (977 °F ...

Natural Bitumen and Extra-Heavy Oil - ResearchGate

Due to the high viscosity of the crude, some form of improved recovery is usually required for production. ... tar-like form of petroleum which is so thick and heavy that it must be heated or ...

Specific Gravity And Viscosity Of Liquids

Specific gravity is the heaviness of a substance compared to that of water, and it is expressed without units. In the metric system specific gravity is the same as in the English system. If something is 7.85 times as heavy as an equal volume of water (such as iron is) its specific gravity is 7.85.

crude coal tar, crude coal tar Suppliers and Manufacturers ...

831 crude coal tar products are offered for sale by suppliers on Alibaba.com, of which other chemicals accounts for 3%, bitumen accounts for 2%, and truck trailers accounts for 2%. A wide variety of crude coal tar options are available to you, such as coal tar pitch, modified bitumen, and semi-trailer.

Ask A Geologist: Heavy Crude and Tar-Sands

Jan 02, 2012· The rest was what we call "tar-sands" or "heavy crude" - even longer-chained carbon molecules that entangle with each other to make a much higher viscosity hydrocarbon than the "light crude." Viscosity is just a measure of the "sludginess" of a semi-solid material. Maple syrup has a higher viscosity than water, so it pours slower.